Frontiers of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes: Devices and Applications
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Therefore, we have attempted to provide detailed information about the polymer-carbon nanotube composites. With regard to the unique stru With regard to the unique structure and properties of carbon nanotubes, a series of important findings have been reported. The unique properties of carbon nanotubes, including thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties, after polymer functionalization have been documented in detail.
This book comprises 18 chapters. The chapters include different applications of polymer functionalization CNTs, e. By Hai M. Hosseini and N. By Samarah V. Pulcinelli, Celso V. Santilli, Kevin M.
Knowles and Peter Hammer. By Steve F. Acquah, Branden E. Leonhardt, Mesopotamia S. Nowotarski, James M. Magi, Kaelynn A. Venzel, Sagar D. Delekar and Lara A.
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This is made possible by the EU reverse charge method. Edited by Sergey Mikhailov. Edited by Jose Mauricio Marulanda. Edited by Boreddy Reddy. In order to further improve the energy density and overall performance of CNM supercapacitors, a new type of the next generation supercapacitors is emerging by utilizing unique strategies to control the nano-architecture of the dielectric metal-oxide MO at the surface of porous, conductive CNM scaffold. In this mini-review, recent research progresses in supercapacitors with the focus of nano-architectured carbon-metal oxide electrodes are reviewed based on a number of representative research publications in the past three years.
Different CNM utilized for metal oxide supercapacitors are classified according to different carbon structure types, and the electrochemical energy storage performances are presented with a summary table of recently reported results.
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In the last, the outlook and challenges of these strategies are briefly discussed. As abovementioned, carbon nanomaterials CNM , e. CNTs, rGOs, intrinsically own high electrical conductivity, high charge transfer capability, large SSA mesoporosity, and high electrolyte accessibility, which make them attractive using as electrode materials.
Since CNT  and graphene  were introduced to the applications of supercapacitor, tremendous progress has been made in the period of including, but not limited to, zero-dimensional carbon onions,  one-dimensional highly densely packed single-walled carbon nanotubes SWNT  and two-dimensional activated graphene based supercapacitor . In , J.
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Chmiola et al. Lots of efforts have been made after that, e. These pioneer efforts have shown the advances in increasing surface area and energy storage performance. However, the activation treatment may undermine the stability of CNM, and the effective surface area is limited by the theoretical value . Thus, a number of recent CNMO-SC studies categorized by the type of carbon nanomaterials are reviewed and discussed below. CNT is well-known for its outstanding electrical and mechanical properties such as high length to diameter ratio up to ,, and intrinsically metallic property .
Its exceptional vertical growth mechanism facilitates the formation of a continuous network for perfect charge transport along the longitude direction. It shows that elastocapillary condensation and bending were useful tools for nano-architecture alternation.
Figure 1. Graphene is two-dimensional 2D carbon structure composed of honeycomb-shaped crystal lattice. The graphene-MnO 2 nanocomposites have been demonstrated by different methods.
The synergic effects of the electrostatic effects and the morphology induced interactions strengthened the integration of rGO and MnO 2 nanosheets. The good capacity and stability may be attributed to the structural advantages and three-dimensionally network of the GA support.http://hoa10gio.com/includes/2019-09-01/964.php
Frontiers of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes, Devices and Applications - Dimensions
Two novel CVD synthesis of graphene foam GF on nickel foam followed by hydrothermal deposition of MnO 2  and CoMoO 4  were reported to show the outstanding electrical and mechanical properties of 3D graphene foam [38,41]. The prepared graphene foam has a relatively low SSA due to the large pore size of several hundred micrometers. Figure 2 shows a porous structure with an interconnected 3D scaffold of nickel which was served as a template for the growth of 3D graphene, and morphological structures. This work illustrates a method for the development of 3-D-graphene porous skeleton electrode incorporating CoMoO 4 as stable electrode for supercapacitors, with excellent pseudocapacitive performance.
Figure 2. Growth mechanism and the morphology of honeycomb-like CoMoO 4 —3D graphene hybrid electrodes.
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A few researchers reported that graphene nano-composites with Mn 3 O 4 and Co 3 O 4 prepared using an in-solution process . The intercalation of cobalt oxide nanoparticle between graphene layers and external graphene-wrapping provides the excellent cycling stability.
Electrospun carbon nanofibers ECNF is well known for its large porosity, high conductivity, cheap and freestanding nature as electrode materials for EDLC applications [47,48]. Moreover, ECNF structures can also be served as scaffolds to uniformly support nanostructured metal oxide because of their reliable 3D-network structure. Carbon nanofibers CNF and carbon fiber paper CFP are essentially the same material with length of tens of micrometers and diameter range from 30 nm to nm. In recent years, much efforts have been focused on using ECNF synthesized by different methods as the backbone to support metal oxide pseudocapacitive materials, significantly enhancing the rate capability by shortening the distance of electron transport .
The activation treatment increases the SSA but undermines the internal structure of the ECNF network, therefore the cyclic stability of these electrodes are lowered.
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Figure 3. Figure 4. Ultrathin porous NiCo 2 O 4 nanosheet arrays on flexible carbon fabric for high-performance supercapacitors, NiCo 2 O 4 as pseudocapacitive material with higher specific capacitance is prepared as ultrathin nanosheet arrays adhered on flexible CFP as supercapacitor electrode of high performance and long cycling life.
Figure 5. The scale bar in f is 10 nm. Dip-coating provides a simple and low cost solution for depositing metal-oxide onto ECNF. Heat assisted MnO 2 dip-coating deposition has been applied onto ECNF surface for supercapacitor application with a wide voltage range of 0—2. The good capacitance and cyclic performance afford a convenient and efficient way to construct electrodes based on freestanding materials for energy storage system.
Electrodeposition is an unique and powerful method which can quantitatively control the morphorlogy of the metal oxide active materials and easily to scale up for large amount production. A novel modified Te-nanowire template directed hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanofiber followed with electrodeposition of ultrathin NiCo 2 O 4 is reported by Zhang et al. The ECNF-NiCo 2 O 4 hierarchical hybrid nanostructures have great potential as advanced electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.
It has good electric conductivity, excellent mechanical property, cheap and easy to be scaled up, yet consists of microsized carbonfibers diameter range from um. NiCo 2 O 4 single crystalline nanotube arrays have been grown on CFP serving as not only an excellent pseudocapacitive material but also a scaffold facilitating ion diffusion . These all show a good potential for the development of light, compact, and high-performance supercapacitors.
Carbon nanotube, graphene and carbon fiber are the most promising carbon materials for energy storage applications. Each of them has some superior properties, e. Therefore, the structures that bundle multiple CNM together as hybrid materials are very attractive since they may hold their intrinsic properties and granted new characteristics prior to single CNM. Graphene foam was utilized with CNT by coupling with various metal oxides for high performance supercapacitors.
Guan et al. The highest specific capacitance reaches