Immigration statistics : a story of neglect
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. A Story of Nealect Daniel B.
The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government.
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The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of , which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities.
It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine.
The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in and , respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This report was prepared for the Immigration and Naturalization Service, U. Department of Justice, under contract number COW Points of view or opinions stated in this document are those of the contractor and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the Immigration and Naturalization Service or the U.
Department of Justice. Rey and Bernsen, Washington, D. Douglas S. Acknowledgments Many people contributed time and expertise to make this study possible, and we are most appreciative of their cooperation and help. Part II analyzes the impact of immigrants on the earnings and employment of native-born men using the census. The earnings of the. The theoretical analysis of earnings and occupational mobility is based on the international transferability of skills and the favorable self-selection of immigrants.
Immigrants initially have lower earnings than the native born but their earnings rise rapidly with the duration of residence, reach equality after 11 to 25 years and then they have higher earnings. The children of immigrants earn 5 to 10 percent more than those with native-born parents. Using aggregate production function analysis, it is shown that an increase in supply of either low-skilled or high-skilled immigrants decreases the wage of that type of labor, and increases the return to both capital and the other type of labor. The immigration tends to increase the aggregate income of the native population, unless the immigrants are substantial net beneficiaries of income transfers.
A bibliography is included. Conroy, Michael E. Texas Universitv at Austin. The purpose of the report is to present new evidence of the magnitude of recent estimated real wage differentials for low-skill laborers across regions within Mexico and through the Southwestern United States; to show the trend in those wage differentials across recent years, with specific attention to the effect of recent devaluations of the Mexican peso; to broaden the analysis of socioeconomic incentives to a series of measures beyond real wages alone; and to suggest policy implications with respect to migration which emerge from this analysis of changing incentives in the context of broader interrelationships between the two countries.
Emerson, Robert D. Florida University, Gainesville. Department of Food and Resource Economics. March The report is a series of papers devoted to seasonal agricultural labor markets.
Farm Policy; and a Summary. The orientation of the document is toward the consideration of policy alternatives, data needs, and research needs. Clover, Robert W. Texas University at Austin. Center for the Study of Human Resources. This report provides an overview of efforts to improve the labor market for farm workers in the citrus industry of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas under the Citrus Labor Market Demonstration Project from to A primary aim of the effort was to increase productivity and incentives for workers to remain in citrus harvest work on a more stable basis.
Meeting this objective would enable the industry to utilize legal U. Researchers worked with five packinghouses who agreed to cooperate with the project in varying degrees. Efforts were conducted in four areas: 1 improvements in fruit handling methods, 2 development of company crews hired directly by the packinghouse, 3 development of a variable piece rate system that adjusted to the amount of effort put to picking and 4 finding alternative employment during the off-season.
For a variety of reasons discussed in this report, none of the attempts could be declared successful. Johnson, Kyle, and James Orr. Labor Affairs, Washington, D. Office of Foreign Economic Research. The paper contributes to the debate on immigration by analyzing recent discussions of the effects of immigration on economic growth, income distribution and productivity and the relationship of these effects to projected labor shortages. McLaughlin, Steven D. June 17, A comparison is also made between native-born, English proficient Mexican-Americans and a sample of white, native-born English proficient non-Hispanics.
The results indicate that the employment outcomes of Mexican-Americans is largely determined by human capital and occupational characteristics. North, David S.
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Seven Years Later: The Experiences of the. Labor Market. Linton and - Co. June 15, Each year about , legal immigrants enter the U. The demographic profile of the legal immigrants is close to that of the population at large, and is thus different from that of illegal immigrants who tend to be young, single males.
In the U. There are substantial occupational group movements, many of which initially at least are downwards.
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The study is based on published and unpublished government statistics and on a survey of the cohort of immigrants. Pollack, Susan L. Jackson, Jr. Farm Labor Wage Issues. Economic Research Service, Washington, D. Economic Development Div. June Proposed immigration reforms would make the hiring of undocumented workers illegal.
It would also establish a worker program to permit agricultural employers to bring legal foreign workers into the United States to replace illegal workers, but only when domestic workers are unavailable for farmwork. The proposed worker program would be a revision of the current H-2 temporary foreign worker program operated by the Departments of Labor and Justice.
The procedures adopted for establishing wage rates and non-wage benefits of temporary foreign agricultural workers could significantly affect farm labor expenditures and the willingness of U. This analysis of H-2 adverse effect wage rates provides new information which policy-makers may use when they consider changes in current H-2 wage determination procedures.
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Department of State, Washington, D. Office of External Research. The purpose of this study is to determine the specific agricultural conditions in Mexico which cause off-farm wage.
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The report reviews economic and anthropological migration literature and develops a migration model which is applied to 4 rural areas of Mexico. The principal conclusion to emerge from this research is that regional agricultural development will not necessarily stem the flow of migratory wage labor to the U.
The Bajio, which contributed most heavily to the U. Migrant households were found to be significantly larger through the incorportion of more adult members into the extended family. Higher farm incomes in that zone permit more individuals to claim a share of farm production, while lower farm labor requirements and higher cash outlays dictate that the majority of labor by these members will be in off-farm occupations.
This household structure encourages U. Sullivan, Teresa A. The report analyzes the Cuban-Mexican differential in labor market success as a function of the differentials between economic and political immigrants. Cubans had higher initial social class and received a comprehensive program of government services; Mexicans were economic immigrants and received few services.
The report uses multiple regression models with Census Public Use Sample data to show Cuban advantage in earnings and occupational prestige even when personal characteristics are statistically controlled. There is a detailed description of U. August 31, This study provides information on legal and illegal alien workers in 19 countries and Hong Kong. Specifically, GAO compiled information on the countries' laws and policies concerning guest workers, national identification documents, employer responsibilities, illegal alien workers, and law enforcement. The information was obtained by questionnaire.
Because of the subcommittee's specific interest, followup visits were made to four countries--Canada, France, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Genmany--to obtain more detailed responses. The discussion of each country's situation contains characterizations of its laws, legal requirements, and sanctions.
In most cases, GAO did not independently examine the countries' laws, regulations, and case law, but rather based its characterizations on information furnished by the countries in response to the questionnaire or in interviews.
Immigration Statistics A Story of Neglect
May This report is a case study of immigrants in New York women's garment industry. The major purpose of this report is to examine the relationship between immigration and industrial change. The principal focus is on the transformation of New York from an industry center to a spot market and on the effect of this change on the incorporation of new immigrants and on the functioning of key labor market institutions. The study is based on a variety of data sources, the most important of which are interviews with the owners of apparel firms that directly produce in New York City.
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The literature on the labor market impact of immigrants is discussed in the introduction. Federal Statistics North, David S. April It has become obvious that illegal immigrants are making substantial impacts on U. It is important to try to secure incremental data from whatever sources are available on the numbers, roles, and activities of illegal migrants. The objective was to review these statistics on illegal migrants--which are gathered for law enforcement management purposes--to determine if they contained demographic and labor market data of utility to policymakers.
The study found that all indices of migration to the U.