Microbiology of Atmospheric Trace Gases: Sources, Sinks and Global Change Processes

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Four reports of Working Group discussions on aspects of trace gas microbiology and climate change are also included in the volume, prepared by rapporteurs designated at the ARW. All the papers here presented have been subjected to peer review by at least two referees and corrections and amendments made where necessary before their acceptance for pUblication in this volume.

The ARW was set up to address a wide range of issues relating to atmospheric trace gas microbiology and the organizing group was aware of the burgeoning of studies on gas metabolism and on global effects of atmospheric trace gases over the past two decades. This research effort has led to a number of specialist and generalist meetings including the triennial series of symposia on the metabolism of one-carbon compounds, colloquia concerned with dimethyl sulfide and its precursor, DMSP, through to the Intergovernmental Panels on Climate Change, which have addressed the impact of increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons on global climate.

Over recent years methane and nitrous oxide showed rates of increase in the atmosphere of and Visit Seller's Storefront. Please contact me if you are not satisfied with your order in any manner. I always list book by ISBN only and buyer is assured of correct edition, correct author and correct format of book.

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Name of your business and form of legal entity: Ami Ventures Inc. Orders usually ship within 1 business days. If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required. Jeffrey S. Gaffney The sources, transport and removal processes, and atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols are studied in our laboratory by using naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures. High volume impactors are used to collect size-fractionated fine aerosols in the field. Samples of both precipitation and interstitial aerosols are also collected simultaneously during rain events.

The determination of the carbon content in the aerosol samples is used as a tracer to distinguish between aerosols produced by fossil fuel combustion and those produced by biomass burning. Preliminary studies conducted in Mexico City have indicated that biomass burning is a large source of carbonaceous aerosols even in a large urban area. The tropospheric residence times of size-fractionated fine aerosols are being determined by examining the relative amounts of the attached natural radionuclide tracers Pb, Bi, and Po.

The measurement of 7 Be along with meteorology during precipitation events allows for the evaluation of upper air sources of aerosols as well as the estimation of their washout rates. We also use laboratory studies to investigate the aqueous stability of the aerosol attachment of these radionuclide tracers as a function of pH.

Potential for Microbial Interventions to Reduce Global Warming

Henry L. Gholz Gholz is co-PI along with Dr. Kenneth L. We currently maintain two tower flux sites. The second is a yr-old, mid-rotation slash pine plantation. Thus, we have a chronosequence of pine plantations for which we have flux data that we are using to examine both environmental as well as management controls over net ecosystem fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy. We have previously also made measurements in a mature, natural pond cypress Taxodium ascendens wetland ecosystem, and are interested in maintaining some research in the swamp as well.

We are collaborating with Dr. Monique Leclerc Univ. We are also collaborating with Dr. Mark Castro Univ. Currently three graduate students are involved in this research. Allen H. Goldstein My atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemistry research program encompasses anthropogenic air pollution, biosphere-atmosphere exchange of radiatively and chemically active trace gases, and development and application of novel instrumentation to investigate the organic chemistry of Earth's atmosphere.

I initiated and lead the AmeriFlux site at Blodgett Forest, and engage in field measurement campaigns, controlled laboratory experiments, and modeling activities covering urban, rural, regional, intercontinental, and global scale studies of ozone, aerosols, and their gas phase precursors.

My comprehensive research questions include; How do terrestrial ecosystems interact chemically and physically with Earth's atmosphere? What controls atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, photochemical oxidants, and aerosols? Thomas W.


Kirchstetter The influence of aerosols remains one of the largest sources of uncertainty in understanding air pollution induced climate change. Our research aims to reduce the uncertainty in the radiaitve effects associated with soot aerosols. These aerosols include organic and black carbon emitted from transporation and fires that scatter and absorb sunlight, alter the albedo of snow, and influence clouds and precipitation.

Our research includes working in the field and in the laboratory. Recent and ongoing work includes 1 field measurements and controlled laboratory experiments to quantify the impacts of soot-contamination on the reflectivity and melting of snow, 2 laboratory experiments to determine the changes in the optical properties of black carbon aerosols when they are mixed with other aerosol compounds, 3 measurements in a roadway tunnel to quantify pollutant emission factors from cars and trucks, and 4 evaluating the performance of existing and emerging methods of quantifying aerosol mass concentrations and optical properties.

Yin-Nan Lee, Ph. We focus our research on identifying the role of multi-phase atmospheric chemistry in the transformation, transport, and removal of key atmospheric trace species. Multi-phase atmospheric chemistry embodies chemical interactions between the gas phase and a condensed phase such as aerosols and hydrometeors in the atmosphere. The objectives are: 1 to determine the aqueous chemical and physical properties of important atmospheric constituents; 2 to develop measurement techniques for soluble reaction intermediates and products; 3 to characterize the atmospheric distributions of these species in the gas phase and in aerosol particles; and 4 to examine the agreement between model predictions and field measured data.

This research is expected to allow an improved understanding to be gained for the following processes: transformation of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, production of radicals and radical precursors, degradation of hydrocarbons, life cycles and composition of aerosol particles, and the scavenging and removal of these species.

Ultraviolet UV radiation is a primary driving force of atmospheric photochemistry. Together with hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, it controls air quality on a variety of geographical scales, ranging from urban photochemical smog, rural oxidant pollution episodes, and global lifetimes of gases e.

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In turn, pollutants can change the optical properties of the atmosphere, and therefore affect the amount of UV radiation available to drive the photochemistry. Such pollutants include aerosol particles scattering and absorbing, e. This project focuses on better quantification of the coupling of the UV radiation field with the chemistry of air pollution, through the use of both modeling and measurements.

Nancy A. Marley The work in our laboratory is focused on the determination of the light absorption and light scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols as a function of wavelength and chemical composition. This is accomplished by obtaining field measurements of aerosol absorption and scattering efficiencies along with laboratory measurements of the composition and optical properties of aerosol samples collected in the field. Aerosol samples are size fractionated using cascade impactors for characterization in the uv-visible, near infrared, and far infrared using integration spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic techniques.

Attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy is used to characterize the water soluble organic and inorganic aerosol species and also to study changes in aerosol surfaces during heterogeneous reactions. In addition, we are also examining the changes in the surface chemistry of carbonaceous aerosols upon interaction with atmospheric oxidants such as the PANs, NO 2 and ozone and how this impacts their absorption properties.

To do so, we are improving the sources of CO and aerosols from biomass burning acitivities. Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts Sea salt particles are common not only over in remote areas over the oceans, but also in coastal areas. There is increasing evidence that the reactions of various gases with sea salt particles produce photochemically active halogen gases.

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Upon photolysis, they form halogen atoms, which are highly reactive and drive the chemistry of the troposphere in much the same way that the OH radical does. They also react directly with ozone, an energy-related air pollutant and greenhouse gas. Studies in this laboratory are directed to elucidating the nature of these reactions with sea salt particles, and their kinetics and mechanisms.

Techniques used include FTIR, MS, Knudsen cells, atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and differential optical absorption spectrometry, as well as a new aerosol chamber designed for these studies. Through collaborative efforts, the results these studies are used as inputs for atmospheric models and for designing field experiments. The principal substances of our attention have been sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted into the troposphere as byproducts of fossil fuel combustion, and their oxidation products, i.

These substances are of concern from the perspective of human health, acid deposition, visibility reduction, and radiative forcing of climate.

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Because these materials are introduced into the atmosphere in association with energy-related activities, the environmental consequences of these emissions are of concern to the Department of Energy, and much of the support for my research comes from the Environmental Sciences Division within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Specific research projects include development of model based representation of aerosol evolution, especially by moment methods, and incorporation of these methods into chemical transport and transformation models.

Jian Wang Atmospheric aerosol affects the climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight direct effect and by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and amount of clouds indirect effect. Our work includes 1 characterizing aerosol microphysical, optical, and chemical properties and studying aerosol ambient processes using research aircraft, 2 development of new instruments for accurate characterization of aerosol microphysical and optical properties, 3 study of aerosol hygroscopic properties and cloud nucleation properties through both field measurements and laboratory experiments.

Terrestrial Carbon Studies and Ecosystem Research. James K. Bishop Ocean Carbon Cycle Processes. Our research focus is on the role of biological processes in the vertical transport of carbon and related elements in the ocean and how they might change in response to human and climate induced changes to the ocean. The bottom line goal is to determine what these changes mean for levels of atmospheric CO2.

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Experimental approaches include satellite remote sensing and at-sea studies of carbon dynamics using a combination of ship-deployed in-situ sample collection systems and in-situ remote sensing using long lived robotic carbon observers. We develop new ways to observe ocean carbon and biological processes. Our analysis approach is fully interdisciplinary ranging from computers to micro beam anaysis methods.

Bond We are testing the hypothesis that hydraulic resistance increases as trees grow and age, and that this increased resistance results in lower rates of photosynthesis and transpiration per unit leaf area in older trees and reduced productivity in older stands. To test this hypothesis, we are conducting a "suite" of measurements using Douglas-fir at sites of three age classes at Wind River, a year-old stand, a year-old stand, and the old growth trees in the canopy crane circle.

Measurements include whole-tree sap flow, leaf-level gas exchange, and foliar nitrogen and carbon isotope content. Subsequently, we will use a process model to estimate stand-level performance. Dave Bowling Our group works on ecosystem ecology, particularly the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and water within terrestrial ecosystems. We focus on examining carbon and water relations of plants and soils at the ecosystem scale, with the principal goals of understanding 1 ecosystem physiological processes, 2 factors influencing the carbon and hydrological cycles within ecosystems, 3 biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and their isotopes, and 4 ecosystem water balance, particularly in ecosystems of the western United States.