Organic allium production
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S hallot by-product like other Allium species might be used as a phytobiotic in poultry feed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti bacterial activities of extracted shallot by-product meal and juice extract and the effect of shallot by-product meal on the characteristic s of small intestine and total bacteria in ileal digesta.
Shallot by-product was obtained from home industry of fried shallot at Palu city. This by-product was washed and sun-dried.
Agro Allium S.A. | Production
The dried by-product was then finely ground to form shallot by-product meal. Shallot by-product juice was produced by blending shallot by-product with the addition of water at a ratio of 1 : 2 water: shallot by-product.
Shallot by-product meal and juice were then extracted by maceration. The extract was then filtered with sterile Whatman paper No. Quercetin analysis was conducted by using the method of Phani et al Preparation of quercetin standard was done by dissolving 5 mg of quercetin standard in 10 ml of methanol. One gram of shallot meal and juice were then placed into a 10 ml volumetric flask and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol.
The samples were then sonificated f or 20 minutes and filtered with filter paper 0. The process was carried out 3 times. A 50 ml of extr a ct sample was re-filtered by using a 0. Antibacterial effects of extracted shallot by-product meal and juice w ere done by Agar Diffusion Method.
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These bacteria were obtained from chicken. Bacteria were incubated at 37 o C for hours and the inhibition zones were measured as the area of inhibition of bacteria. Inhibition of the bacteria Lactobacillus sp, E. The treatments of the study were physical form of shallot by-product meal and juice and the level of extracted shallot, namely: juice 1.
A total of 30 treatments were applied with 3 replications. Data were analyzed using Minitab 17 and the differences between treatments were tested using LSD test Steel and Torrie A total of chickens were randomly allocated to 25 pens. The small intestine of chickens was collected after feeding with basal diet ad-libitum for 42 days Table 1. The treatments were the addition of shallot by-product meal level as phytobiotic level. Intestinal samples were dehydrated using different concentration of alcohol and then w ere infiltrated with a solution of multilevel xilol Tissue Tex Processor for 90 minutes.
Samples were then placed on glass objects and stained with haemotoxylin and eosin HE.
Samples were dehydrated again using multi-level alcohol, and then clarified using xylol for 60 minutes. The samples were allowed to dry at room temperature and prepared for observation Saki et al The intestinal digesta for viscosity and pH measurement was collected by using a syringe and saline solution. The digest was mixed with distilled water at a ratio of 1: 1 Piel et al with slight modification and the mixture was centrifuged at a speed of 3, g for 10 minutes. Intestinal digest a samples of day-old chickens were placed in a sterile bottle.
The digesta was homogenized and diluted using 0. Selective media was used to grow each bacterium. After incubation at 37 o C for 24 hours for E. Parameters measured consisted of digesta pH and viscosity, total digest bacteria Lactobacillus sp, E. A completely randomized design was used in this study and data were analysed by using Minitab Tabl e 1.
Crude Protein The inhibition capacity of extracted shallot by-product against Lactobacillus sp , E. Table 2. Zone inhibition of bacteria Lactobacillus sp, E. Although, the shallot by-product juice extract could inhibit the growth of all three types of bacteria, the inhibition capacity was lower than the extracted shallot by-product in the form of meal.
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Article Figures and tables References. References Arif, U. Interactive effect of phosphorus and zinc on the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of garlic Allium sativum L. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Food Sciences , 4 , — Effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of garlic crop Allium sativum L.
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Journal of Agricultural Science , 7 , 80— Effect of sulfur application in the yield and quality of onion Allium cepa L. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala , 17 , — The chemistry of garlic and onions. Scientific American , , — Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the alliin content of onions and garlic. Journal of Plant Nutrition , 27 , — Effects of nitrogen supply on bulb development in onions Allium cepa L.
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Rhode Island agricultural experiment station bulletin paper Report on area and production of major crops. Bulletin No. From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economics training manual.
Soil and plant testing as a base for fertilizer recommendation: Soils bulletin No. Retrieved from www. Hydrometer method of particle size analysis.