Polymers for Tissue Engineering
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The hydrogel with an 1. Copyright , with permission from Elsevier. This review summarizes the applications of electrically conductive polymers for tissue engineering. The many positive attributes of conducting polymers such as their biocompatibility, tunable conductivity, facile synthesis and simple modification make conducting polymers very attractive as bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering.
Different fabrication techniques have been developed for fabricating conductive biomaterials as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The conductive biomaterials in the form of composite films, electrospun fibers or hydrogels, can improve the usefulness of conducting polymers. And these scaffolds can mimic the structure of ECM, and could simultaneously provide electrical cue for the scaffolds. Applying an electrical stimulus on a conductive substrate can enhance the cellular activity cell proliferation and differentiation of the cells cultured on the scaffolds.
The results of both in vitro and in vivo research demonstrated that conductive biomaterials as scaffolds are promising candidates for the repair of bone, muscle, nerve, cardiac and skin tissues. Although conducing polymers were shown to be biocompatible in vitro, remarkable advances in the synthesis and functionalization of these conducing polymer-based biomaterials have been made, and the systematic studies of their in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability remain needed.
Extensive in vivo experiments of long-term cytotoxicity and biodegradation are necessary to ensure the non-toxicity and biodegradability of the conductive biomaterials. We believe that more research on the application of conductive polymers in tissue engineering should be conducted and they as smart materials may be used in clinic to regenerate electrical sensitive tissues in the future.
This review focuses on these conductive polymers for tissue engineering applications.
Conductive polymers exhibit promising conductivity as bioactive scaffolds for tissue regeneration, and their conductive nature allows cells or tissue cultured on them to be stimulated by electrical signals. The major objective of this review is to summarize the conductive biomaterials used in tissue engineering including conductive composite films, conductive nanofibers, conductive hydrogels, and conductive composite scaffolds fabricated by various methods such as electrospinning, coating, or deposition by in situ polymerization.
Furthermore, recent progress in tissue engineering applications using these conductive biomaterials including bone tissue engineering, muscle tissue engineering, nerve tissue engineering, cardiac tissue engineering, and wound healing application are discussed in detail. The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun PMID: Baolin Guo a and Peter X. Peter X. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Biomacromolecules.
Polymers for medical and tissue engineering applications
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Electrically conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene and their derivatives mainly aniline oligomer and poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene with good biocompatibility find wide applications in biomedical fields including bioactuators, biosensors, neural implants, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering scaffolds. Keywords: conducting polymers, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, scaffolds, electrical stimulations, conductive biomaterials, bioactive scaffolds.
Graphical Abstract. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Fabrication of conductive biomaterials for tissue engineering 2. Pure conducting polymer films for tissue engineering Conducting polymers e. Conducting blends or composite films for tissue engineering CPs are very brittle, and it is very difficult to fabricate pure conducting polymer film from CPs. Figure 2.
Biodegradable PLA-PGA Polymers for Tissue Engineering in Orthopaedics
Conducting copolymer films for tissue engineering CPs were widely used as biomaterials in tissue engineering, but their non-degradability limits the in vivo applications. Figure 3. Conducting nanofibers for tissue engineering Biomaterials should mimic the structure of extracellular matrix ECM.
Figure 4. Conducting hydrogels for tissue engineering Hydrogels are an important class of biomaterials due to their rubbery nature similar to soft tissues, tunable properties, and their excellent biocompatibility. Figure 5. Conducting composite 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering Except hydrogels, the above conductive blends, composites or nanofibers are usually in the form of a film or a membrane, which do not exhibit the 3D structures important for tissue regeneration.
Figure 6. Conductive biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications It becomes increasing important for biomaterials to be designed to physically enhance tissue growth and improve specific cell functions. Figure 7. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering Skeletal muscles show a robust ability to regenerate, but under severe conditions, such as trauma, the loss of muscle function is inevitable.
Gradient polymers for tissue engineering
Figure 8. Figure 9. Nerve tissue engineering Neurons in nervous system are electrically excitable cells which transmit signals at a quick pace. Figure Cardiac tissue engineering The well-known behavior of excitation-contraction coupling of the heart is caused by the propagation of electrical signals via the cardiac cells in a synchronized fashion. Skin tissue engineering Skin protects the human body from damage and microbial invasion. Conclusions and future prospective This review summarizes the applications of electrically conductive polymers for tissue engineering.
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