Tufted Carpet. Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes

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Stoyko Fakirov. Shun Dar Lin. Handbook of Hydraulic Fracturing. Much is known about the steaming of woolen yarns but more research is needed on the steaming behaviour of artificial fibers and cotton. As soon as steam enters, the yarns quantity of moisture rises at once, caused by the heating of the yarn and by steam condensation.

According to Speakmann the following phenomena can be seen in the stretched woolen fiber: The cystine side chains are subjected to a hydrolysis at the sulphur bridge, where cystine is dissolved into cysteine and a not yet isolated sulphonic acid. An ionization can be seen at the bridges that were produced from salt liberation.

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Due to the increase of temperature in the fibers during steaming an oscillation of the molecules is produced which leads to the bursting of the hydrogen bridges; now residual valencies are set free which are able to saturate with the dipole water. The water then acts like a lubrication between the individual molecules. Thus the bonds of the main chains between each other are dissolved by the side chains, the individual polypeptide chains can shift against each other and the tensions find their equilibrium see illustration 4.

When the steaming of the yarn is continued, new side chains are formed between the individual components of the main chains. When finally the yarn is dried, i. Now the individual polypeptide chains can no longer be shifted against each other and the fibers regained their former closeness, however without having remarkable tensions inside.

The yarn or doubled yarn twist is set. Of course, the morphological structure of the fibers must be considered when equalizing the tensions by steaming. Since the woolen fiber very quickly gets the temperature for breaking up the hydrogen bridges and the steam for hydrolysing the cystine bridges, a relatively quick twist modification is possible which roughly corresponds to the values of an autoclave moderated yarn; however, the steaming quality of the Steamatic steaming process is much better with reference to the evenness of moisture absorption.

Synthetic fibers can be divided up into two fiber domains, the crystalline organized domain and the amorphous unorganized domain. In crystalline domains physical forces of attraction are acting between the closely parallel lines of polymers.